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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediational effect of masculine gender role stress on the relation between adherence to dimensions of a hegemonic masculinity and male-to-female intimate partner physical aggression. A sample of heterosexual men from the southeastern United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year completed measures of hegemonic masculine norms i.

indicated that the indirect effects of adherence to the antifemininity and toughness norms on physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress were ificant and marginal, respectively. A ificant indirect effect of status was not detected. Moreover, subsequent analyses revealed that the indirect effects of antifemininity and toughness were ificant only among men with a history of heavy episodic drinking. These findings suggest that heavy episodic drinking exacerbates a gender-relevant stress pathway for intimate partner aggression among men who adhere to specific norms of masculinity.

Although variability exists across countries, extant literature drawn from myriad countries indicates that alcohol consumption is positively associated with the perpetration of aggression World Health Organization Thus, understanding how alcohol use may affect the relation between masculinity and intimate partner aggression has broad implications. To examine these objectives, we analyzed self-report data from heterosexual men in the United States who had been in an intimate relationship within the past year using negative binomial regression, which has been shown to effectively handle non-linear count data that is common in violence research.

As such, the present study represents an important step toward the development of an evidence base upon which future research and practice can seek to reduce intimate partner aggression. The following sections will first review theory pertinent to the construction and demonstration of hegemonic masculinity and empirical support for these interrelationships. Unless otherwise noted, this review includes studies from samples in the United States. Among the myriad determinants of intimate partner aggression identified in U.

Much of this work has conceptualized masculinity as a unidimensional construct to which men show individual variability. In turn, adherence to specific dimensions of hegemonic masculinity reflects the degree to which men internalize and express cultural beliefs associated with various hegemonic masculine norms Good, Borst, and Wallace These examples correspond nicely with a tripartite conceptualization of hegemonic masculinity put forth by Thompson and Pleckwho identified three fundamental and distinct dimensions of hegemonic masculinity to which men vary in their adherence. Masculine gender role stress Eisler and Skidmore is defined as the tendency to cognitively appraise gender relevant situations as threatening or stressful.

These situations include gender relevant conflict or situations that require defense of personal and societal standards of a more hegemonic masculinity Copenhaver, Lash, and Eisler ; Eisler and Skidmore ; Eisler, Franchina, Moore, Honeycutt, and Rhatigan ; Eisler, Skidmore, and Ward ; Lash, Eisler, and Schulnian Specific to intimate relationships, men who consistently exhibit these biased appraisal processes are more likely to feel threatened, use verbal aggression, experience negative affect e.

This is surprising for at least two reasons. First, masculine gender role stress has been conceptualized as a stable, experiential consequence of rigid hegemonic masculine norm adherence that is expressed in response to gender relevant situations Jakupcak, Salters, Gratz, and Roemer Second, research indicates that men who endorse hegemonic masculine norms also report a global fear of emotion Jakupcak et al. This mechanism is consistent with extant literature which identifies cognitive processing biases as a risk factor for non-alcohol related Eckhardt, Samper, Suhr, and Holtzworth-Munroe ; Persampiere, Poole, and Murphy ; Sippel and Marshall and alcohol-related intimate partner physical aggression for a review, see Clements and Schumacher, Recent work on the general aggression model for a review, see Anderson and Bushman offers a framework which explains how co-occurring characteristics of the individual and situational context differentially facilitate physical aggression toward intimate partners DeWall, Anderson, and Bushman To this end, the most prominent theories of alcohol-related aggression suggest that alcohol interferes with important self-regulatory processes by decreasing fear responses Ito, Miller, and Pollock ; Pihl, Peterson, and Lauincreasing physiological and psychological arousal Giancola and Zeichner ; Graham, Wells, and Westand disrupting higher-order cognitive functioning involved in the perception of cues and the regulation of behavior Giancola ; Hull ; Pernanen ; Steele and Josephs ; Taylor and Leonard Heavy episodic drinkers, relative to non-heavy episodic drinkers, experience a range of disruptions in self-regulatory processes such as poorer inhibitory control Marczinski, Combs, and Fillmore and decision-making abilities Goudriaan, Grekin, and Sher Importantly, men who consume high quantities of alcohol per drinking occasion are more likely to be intoxicated across time and contexts, relative to men who do not consume high quantities of alcohol per drinking occasion.

As such, they possess a greater risk for alcohol-related disruption of self-regulatory processes during intimate partner conflict. To this end, a meta-analysis identified that, relative to other forms of alcohol consumption e. The association between heavy drinking and aggression may be explained by the most prominent and empirically supported model of alcohol-related aggression, Alcohol Myopia Theory Steele and Josephs By impairing attentional capacity, alcohol causes individuals to attend to environmental cues which are most salient and easiest to process.

In intimate conflict situations, the cues which tend to be most salient are those which instigate aggression e. Pertinent theory suggests that men who adhere to norms of hegemonic masculinity will perpetrate more physical aggression toward their intimate partners because they tend to appraise intimate partner conflict as threatening to their rigid masculine identity.

However, in keeping with Alcohol Myopia Theory, this effect will be moderated by heavy drinking in as much as heavy drinkers are more likely to be intoxicated across contexts, including situations that involve intimate partner conflict and gender-relevant threats.

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Specifically, because heavy episodic drinkers will tend to be intoxicated during intimate conflict, they are hypothesized to allocate their attention such that they perceive and process only the most salient cues in their environment e. In contrast, because non-heavy drinkers will tend to be sober during intimate conflict, they should retain the ability to focus attention on both instigatory and inhibitory cues in their environment. Hypothesis 2 posited that these indirect effects would be stronger among men who evidenced a pattern of heavy episodic drinking relative to men who did not evidence a pattern of heavy drinking.

To test Hypothesis 1, 1 masculine gender role stress was regressed onto status, toughness, or antifemininity while controlling for the remaining two norms, 2 intimate partner physical aggression was regressed onto status, toughness, or antifemininity and masculine gender role stress while controlling for the other two norms, and 3 indirect effects of each norm on intimate partner physical aggression via masculine gender role stress were estimated.

To test Hypothesis 2, 1 intimate partner physical aggression was regressed onto status, toughness, or antifemininity while controlling for the other two normsmasculine gender role stress, heavy episodic drinking, and the Masculine Gender Role Stress X Heavy Episodic Drinking interaction term, 2 masculine gender role stress was regressed onto status, toughness, or antifemininity while controlling for the other two norms, and 3 the conditional indirect effect of a given male role norm on intimate partner aggression via masculine gender role stress was estimated.

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This study utilized archival data drawn from the first phase of a larger two phase investigation on the effects of alcohol on aggression in men. This first phase involved the completion of a questionnaire battery, whereas the second phase involved an alcohol administration laboratory protocol. Thus, all participants who presented to the laboratory reported alcohol consumption during the past year see below and denied past or present drug or alcohol-related problems. The present hypotheses are novel, and the analytic plan was developed specifically to address these aims.

Eligible participants were then scheduled for an appointment at the laboratory. Upon arrival to the laboratory, 55 participants reported that they had not been in an intimate relationship during the past year, 32 men self-identified as non-heterosexual or did not report an exclusively heterosexual pattern of arousal or behavioral experiences on the Kinsey Heterosexual-Homosexual Rating Scale Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martinand nine did not complete the questionnaire battery in its entirety.

This resulted in a final sample men who had been in a heterosexual relationship in the past year see Table 1 for demographic characteristics. Men reported consuming an average of 4. Eighty-three percent of participants reported the consumption of five or more drinks on at least one occasion during the past year.

However, it is not assumed that the present hypotheses generalize across countries and cultures. The self-report form obtained information such as age, years of education, self-identified sexual orientation, race, and relationship status. A modified version of this scale was used to measure prior sexual arousal and experience on a scale ranging from exclusively heterosexual to exclusively homosexual. As ly noted, participants who did not report an exclusively heterosexual pattern of arousal and behavioral experiences were excluded from analyses.

Participants rate items on a 1 strongly disagree to 7 strongly agree. Items from each subscale are summed, with higher scores reflecting a greater adherence to these norms of hegemonic masculinity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses have supported this tri-dimensional factor structure Sinn ; Thompson and Pleck These subscales have good reliability, with alpha coefficients ranging from. This item Likert-type scale measures the degree to which gender relevant situations are cognitively appraised as stressful or threatening.

Participants rate items on a scale from 0 not stressful to 5 extremely stressful. These 40 items are then summed, with higher scores indicating more trait masculine gender role stress. Standardization data indicate alpha reliability coefficients that exceed.

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In accordance with the guidelines put forth by NIAAA, total heavy drinking days in the past year were generated. For example, if a participant endorsed heavy episodic drinking one day per week, their total heavy drinking days would be As necessary, the average frequency of a response range e.

This strategy reliably assesses the of days drinking at high levels over a specific period of time for a review, see Sobell and Sobell The CTS-2 is item self-report instrument that measures a range of events that occur during disagreements within intimate relationships. Responses may range from 0 never to 6 more than 20 times. The one-year frequency of physical assault is calculated by adding the midpoints of the score range for each item to form a total score.

An alpha reliability of. Upon arrival to the laboratory, participants were greeted by an experimenter, lead to a private experimental room, and provided informed consent. Participants then completed a questionnaire battery consisting of a demographic form, the NIAAA-recommended questions to assess alcohol use during the past year, and measures that assessed adherence to hegemonic masculine norms, masculine gender role stress, and the perpetration of intimate partner physical aggression within the past year, respectively.

Participants completed these measures on a computer using MediaLab software Jarvis The experimenter provided instructions on how to operate MediaLab, and was available to answer any questions during the session. Additional questionnaires were also completed, but are unrelated to the current study and thus not reported here.

Prior to data collection, a fixed administration order of the questionnaires was randomly predetermined. All participants completed questionnaires in this fixed order. After completing the questionnaire battery, the experimenter debriefed participants and paid them for their time.

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As such, traditional OLS regression analyses, which assume normal distribution of residuals, were deemed inappropriate. Thus, negative binomial regression was employed, given that intimate partner physical aggression was highly skewed and overdispersed Atkins and GallopHilbe Analyses were performed using Mplus v 7. As recommended by Hilbemaximum likelihood estimation was utilized. are reported as incidence rate ratios IRR; i.

Means, standard deviations, and ranges for pertinent study variables are presented in Table 2 along with their correlations. Participants reported heavy episodic drinking an average of 44 days during the past year i. The associations between heavy episodic drinking and the toughness and antifemininity norms of hegemonic masculinity and masculine gender role stress were small and not ificant.

Seven of the 15 correlations were over. Variables were assessed for normality and collinearity. The proposed simple mediation models were tested using negative binomial regression models. In each model, 1 masculine gender role stress was regressed onto status, toughness, or antifemininity while controlling for the remaining two norms i.

Given the age range in the present study, these analyses were repeated with age entered in as a covariate and the pattern of effects described below did not change. Additionally, the indirect effects of each male role norm on intimate partner physical aggression via masculine gender role stress were estimated using the delta method specified by the IND command in Mplus.

Hypothesis 2 posited that these indirect effects would be stronger among men who evidenced a pattern of heavy episodic drinking relative to men who did not evidence a pattern of heavy episodic drinking. Specifically, in each model 1 masculine gender role stress was regressed onto status, toughness, antifemininity while controlling for the other two norms i. The two male role norms not being examined were included as covariates in the mediator and dependent variable models. As such, for all three models are equivalent, with the exception of the conditional indirect effects.

Figure 1 depicts from the dependent variable model. Note : Estimates are incidence rate rates. Non-ificant paths are dotted.

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Consistent with Hypothesis 1, indicate that adherence to the toughness and antifemininity norms, but not the status norm, is indirectly and positively associated with the perpetration of physical aggression toward female intimate partners via masculine gender role stress.

Consistent with Hypothesis 2, demonstrate that masculine gender role stress mediates these indirect effects only among men who engage in heavy episodic drinking. Taken together, these findings add to the current alcohol-related aggression and masculinity-based literatures in two key ways.

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